Below is a partial list of investment structures and industry areas represented within the PPM.net Private Placement Memorandum Library, comprised of thousands of actual PPMs created for hedge funds, private companies, public companies and other entities that issue equity and debt private placement offerings.
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Aerospace: The human effort and endeavor in science, technology and engineering with a aim to travel in space is the domain of aerospace. The organizations involved in the aerospace research, manufacture, conceive, design, construct and test spacecraft and rocket to win the final frontier. Aerospace activity is considerably diverse with a number of military, industry and commercial application. Aerospace is entirely different from airspace, though, the two sounds very similar. Air space is the physical air space directly above a location on the ground. 100 kilometer above the ground is the end of air space and the beginning of actual space as per the authorities. The pressure reduces considerably as we move up.
Agriculture: Considered to be one of oldest profession, it still employs a significant proportion of world’s population. In general, agriculture is the cultivation of plants, fungi and other forms of life food, fiber, bio-fuel, medicine and other products to sustain and improve human life. Agriculture played a big part in the rise of early human civilization. Farming and rearing of domestic species generated surplus food which nurtured the development of human beings. Agriculture science is nothing but the study of agriculture. History of agriculture can be traced back to thousands of years and its development has been affected by climate, knowledge and available technology of the time. Western nation were first to adopt the concept of industrial agriculture. Mechanical instruments reduced the hard labor and also encouraged large scale farming without any man and material risk.
Modern agronomy, latest technology and agrochemicals such as pesticides and insecticides have considerably increased the yield per unit. On the con side, use of chemicals causes irreparable damage to the ecology and human health. Similarly, modern approach to animal husbandry along with selected breeding has resulted in increased production of meat. On the other hand, it raises serious questions about condition of woman and the health effect of antibiotics, growth hormones and related chemicals extensively used in meat production. Agriculture food production and water management have been the raging topic of debate on national and international stage. In the past few decades, modern practices have done considerable damage to land and water resources. Alarmingly, effects of global warming on agriculture produce are yet to be understood fully.
The important agriculture produce can be broadly categorized into fibers, foods, fuels and raw materials. Particular food includes cereals (grains), oils, vegetables, foods, fruits, meats and spices. Cotton, wool, silk, hemp and flax constitute fiber. Lumber and bamboo comes under raw materials. Other useful plant materials include drugs, dyes, raisins, bio-fuels, perfumes and ornamental product such as nursery plant and cut flowers. Agriculture is the second biggest employer after the service industry. The percentage of workers employed in agriculture is considerably less in developed economy.
Alternative Energy: Alternative energy as the name suggests is an option to fossil fuel. Alternative source of energy have been conceptualized and developed to deal with the ill-effects of fossil fuel. The term “alternative” has itself been controversy ridden. Categorizing some energy source as alternatives has resulted in wide spread protests from the environmentalist.
As of today, alternative source of energy are supposed to cut down the green house gas effects in particularly carbon dioxide which can cause catastrophic damage to aquatic life and life on earth in general. The last few decades has witnessed a rapid increase in temperature due to the greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere. Coal, primarily, along with other fossil fuel have been responsible for erratic weather pattern.
Apparel and Textiles: The apparel and textiles industry affect s the life of every one either directly or indirectly. There are various categories in the textiles – Technical textiles, Industrial Textiles, safety textiles, medical textiles, safety textiles, intelligent textiles or smart textiles.
From a mere domestic industry to an organized industry, Textile industry has witnessed rapid progress. It began with industrial revolution and gained almost a supreme status with time. Rich and consistent production of silk, wool and cotton has fueled the growth in the last few decades. As people became more and more fashion conscious, textile industry were reaping the benefits. The concept of textile industry originated in England and reached to other parts of the world like Europe and North America. The textile manufacturing process became more and more mechanical with the progress of time. By the 21st century, Japan, China and India became leading producer of textiles. Obviously, the cheap labor played a crucial part in the growth process.
The World trade organization has consistently taken correct and adequate steps to promote the industry. In 1995, WTO took a major step abolishing the quota system on textile and clothing item. It came to be known as agreement on textile and clothing. In spite of high tariffs and quantitative restrictions imposed by developed countries, emerging economy continued to export textile and clothing item to the rest of the world.
As per the latest statistics, the global textile market is worth 400 billion dollars. There are both stiff competition and ample opportunities in liberalized and open environment. Global textile production is expected to increase by more than 50% in a decade. After the elimination of quota in 2005, the industry got a shot in arm. New competitors as well as new consumers are entering the market every year with immense potential and capabilities.
Automotive: The auto industry encompasses a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world’s most important economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The term automotive was created from a Greek word auto (self) and Latin motivus (motion) to represent any form of self powered vehicle.
Chemical Industry: It consist all companies involved in the production of industrial chemicals. One of the centers of the modern economy, it converts raw materials (natural gas, water, air, oil, metals and minerals into more than 70,000 different product. The chemical industry encompasses large, medium and smaller companies located worldwide. For many companies, the chemical sale is a part of the total sales generated. Although the business of chemical industry is spread worldwide, yet, the productions are concentrated within few countries. The chemical industry is estimated around 3.7 trillion dollar worldwide. In this, the United States alone produced 690 billion dollars in 2008 representing approximately 19% of the total world chemical output.
Computer: The computer or Information technology industry is involved in production and selling of computer software and hardware. The IT industry has changed the landscape of many developing countries in particularly India. It employs millions of skilled employee contributing to a higher standard of living. The cheap cost of skilled labor attracts the MNC from the United States. India emerged as a back office for big corporations of America. Similarly, hardware has resulted in a million of jobs, people are directly involved in the distribution and maintenance work.
Construction: It is the process of creating and building infrastructure or a facility. It differs from manufacturing in the sense that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser. While, construction is typically done on location for a known client. Construction contributes around six to nine percentage to the gross domestic product of the developed economy. Construction starts with planning, designing and financing. It continues until the project is built and ready for use.
Defense Industry: The defense industry comprises of research, development, production, and service of military materiel, equipment and facilities which are used for protecting the properties and people of a nation or a specific area. The defense industry primarily focuses on the resistance and prevention of attacks from enemies. However, military weapon for offensive purpose can be used for defensive purpose as well.
The Defense industry is divided into government and commercial suppliers. It includes defense contractors, business organizations and individuals supplying products to military. The arms industry producing ammunitions, guns, military aircrafts, missiles and associated consumables also are part of the defense industry.
Arms: The arms industry manufactures weapons and military equipment. It is a global business. It comprises commercial firms involved in research and development, production, service of military material, equipment and facilities. Arms companies are also referred as defense contractors produce arms and ammunition mainly for the army of a state. Departments of government are also play an active role in buying and selling weapons, ammunition and other military items. Products include ammunitions, guns, missiles, military aircraft, military vehicle, electronic system and more. The arms industry also provides other operational and logistic support.
Electric: The responsibility of electric power industry is the generation, transmission and distribution and sale of electric power to the general public. The industry started way back in 1882 with the introduction of electrical lightning. In the coming decades, booming economic growth and safety concern s led to the regulation of the industry. Once considered a novelty limited to rich and densely populated areas, it has become the basic necessity of modern life. By the middle of the 20th century power industry has become a playground of selected few. Market was tightly controlled by some big organizations. In some areas, vertically integrated companies took care of all the stages from generation to retail. The government supervision, only, could regulate the rate of return and cost structure.
In the last few decades, many countries have opened up the sector to privatization resulting in stiff competition. Consumers are the ultimate beneficiary of such policies. On the flip side, such market can be manipulated leading to exaggerated price. Transmission and distributions are key areas of concern since returns are not easy to fin
Energy Industry: The Energy industry consist all the industries involved in the production and sale of energy ranging from fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining, transmission and distribution. Society in modern age consumes a mind boggling amount of energy. The power and Energy industry are invaluable part of the infrastructure for maintenance of peace and harmony in all society. The energy industry comprises of the following:
Oil and gas industry involved in the production of crude oil which is later converted into petrol, diesel and other hydrocarbon products essential for day to day operations.
- Electrical power industry involved in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.
- Coal power plant
- Nuclear power plant
- The renewable or non-conventional energy industry comprising wind power, tidal power, Geo-thermal energy etc.
- Traditional energy industry making use of household items such as firewood for generation and distribution of energy. Essentially used in poorer countries.
Entertainment: The media and entertainment industry includes a wide variety of companies. These companies provide products and services that keeps everyday consumer engaged. There are a number of segments within the industry. Each provides a different form of entertainment to consumers around the world. These segments include traditional print media, television, radio broadcasting, film entertainment, video games and advertising. Perhaps most important are the manufacturers of the technology that the above segments rely on. The significance of these manufacturers cannot be underestimated when considering the industry as a whole. The most significant technological development (in recent years, at least) for the evolution of the media industry has been the rise of the internet. The technology has changed how media is consumed and furthermore created entirely new sectors and platforms for mainstream entertainment still in the early stages of development. In 2007 the U.S. spent roughly $930 billion on the media industry as a whole, with advertising spending accounting for over $284 billion.
Financial Services: Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry. It encompasses a wide range of businesses that manage money including credit union, banks, credit card companies, accountancy companies, insurance companies, stock brokerage, consumer finance companies, investment fund and some government sponsored enterprises.
Fishing Industry: Fishing Industry comprise the entire activity focused on culturing, processing, taking, storing, transporting, marketing, buying and selling of fish and other aquatic creatures. The commercial operation is focused on delivery of fish and other seafood products for human consumption or as input for other related industries. The industry employs over 500 million people directly or indirectly. Aquaculture is almost similar to fishing. It was one of earliest profession of human civilization along with agriculture.
Food and Beverages: In the past half-century, the food and beverage industry has emerged as a trillion-dollar powerhouse led by huge international corporations. Familiar names like Coca-Cola, Starbucks and McDonald’s can be found in every corner of the globe. The overarching theme dominating the food and beverage industry is exploding global demand and rapidly rising food prices. A massive influx of consumers onto the global food market has resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in food prices, stoking global inflation.
The related shift to ethanol and other bio-diesels in the face of rapidly rising energy prices has only exacerbated the world’s food inflation headache. Some members of the food and beverage industry (primarily farmers and agribusinesses) benefit from higher prices. Most of the members have seen their profit margin dwindle. The higher costs are passed, in part, onto consumers, who find their discretionary spending restricted when they must spend a larger chunk of their paycheck at restaurants and grocery stores. So, just as oil prices are a key economic indicator, so too are the prices of key agricultural commodities such as corn, wheat and soybeans.
Health care: The health care industry, or medical industry, is an aggregation of sectors within the economic system that provides goods and services to patients with curative, preventive, rehabilitative, and palliative care. Health care also includes the generation and commercialization of goods and services lending themselves to maintaining and re-establishing health. The modern health care industry is divided into many sectors and depends on interdisciplinary teams of trained professionals and paraprofessionals to meet health needs of individuals and populations.
The health care industry is one of the world’s largest and fastest-growing industries. Consuming over 10 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) of most developed nations, health care can form an enormous part of a country’s economy.
High Technology: High technology is generally abbreviated as high-tech for ease of use and speaking. It refers to the ultra modern cutting edge technology of the time. As a matter of fact, high technology is the latest technology available in the market. Products that are deemed high-tech makes considerable use of electronics and computers. No technology or product are forever high-tech, hence, categorization is a risky affair. Ex: Walkman one considered a high-tech gadget is absolutely obsolete now. On the other side of spectrum of technology is low-tech which refers to traditional and mechanical technology. Calculator is a perfect example of low technology.
Hospitality Industry: The Hospitality Industry covers a broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry. The hospitality industry is a multi billion-dollar industry depending on the availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality unit such as a restaurant, hotel, or an amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance and direct operations (servers, housekeepers, porters, kitchen workers, bartenders, management, marketing, and human resources etc.).
Vacancy rate is an important variable for the hospitality industry. Hotels and theme parks seek to maximize the number of customers they “process” in all sectors. This led to formation of services with the aim to increase usage rate provided by hotel consolidators. Information about required or offered products is brokered by vendors as well as purchasers. Looking at various industries, “barriers to entry” for newcomers and competitive advantages between current players are very important. Among other things, hospitality industry players find advantage in old classics (location), initial and ongoing investment support. The authenticity, professionalism, and actual concern for the happiness and well-being of the customers by successful organizations are a clear competitive advantage.
Information: This industry is information intensive in one way or another. It is regarded as one of the most important source for a variety of reasons. There are many kinds of information industries and different way to classify them. Information industry can be conceptualized as knowledge industry or information related occupation. The term is mostly identified with system design, computer programming, telecommunications and others.
First there are companies producing and selling information in the form of goods and services. Media products such as television programs and movies, published books and periodicals would constitute the most accepted part of what information goods can be. Some information is provided not as a tangible commodity but as a service. Consulting is the best example of this kind. However, even in this category, disagreements can occur due to the vagueness of the term information. Information is knowledge about a subject that can be used to improve the performance of other activities. For many information is mentally processed and consumed to improve production or for personal indulgence. Artists are architects are perfect example of that. Information industry may also include things such as amusement park and restaurants to the extent that food and ride has to do with senses. Despite the definitional issues, industries producing information goods and services are called Information industries.
Second, there are information processing services. Some services, such as legal services, banking, insurance, computer programming, data processing, testing, and market research, require intensive and intellectual processing of information to achieve desired result. Though, these services do not provide information, these offers expertise in decision making on behalf of clients. All these kind of services can be considered as an information intensive part of various industries which is externalized and specialized.
Third, there are industries which are vital to the dissemination of the information. Ex. Telephone, book retail and broadcasting industries do not produce much information. However, the core business is transmission of information. Predominantly, these industries handle information and can be distinguished from wholesale or retail industry in general. In the United States and some other countries, broadcasting station produces very limited amount of program they broadcast. However, this is not the only possible form of division of labor. The broadcaster would have been the producers of their own program if there were not economic, legal, cultural and historical issue. Hence, in order to capture the information related activities of an economy, it makes sense to include these types of industry. The industries reflect the importance of information in an economy. It is quite useful to differentiate between production of information and processing of information.
Insurance: Insurance is equal transfer of risk of a loss, from one entity to another in exchange of money. Alternatively speaking, it is a kind of risk management primarily used to hedge the risk of a loss to property or life. An insurer or insurance carrier sells the insurance. The policy holder or the insured is the person or entity buying the insurance policies. Amount of money charged for a certain type of insurance plan is called premium. Risk management is the practicing of appraising and controlling risk. It has evolved into a discrete field of study and practice. The insurer, generally, receives a contract called the insurance policy laying out the terms and conditions under which the insurer will be finally compensated.
Infrastructure: Infrastructure are building blocks of any place be it village, town, City or a country. It includes basic and necessary facilities that are essential for modern economy to run and survive. In general, it includes roads, highways, bridges, power plants, railways, airports, Electrical grids and telecommunication facilities. All the above components play a decisive role in development of an economy. Infrastructure is the backbone of a modern economy. No country can expect to be tagged as rich and successful until it has world class infrastructure.
Internet: The defining word of the 21st It has touched each and every life on the planet directly or indirectly. Internet is a network of interconnected computers which employs the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to connect millions and billions of devices globally. The network of networks includes millions of government, public, private, business and academic networks. The individual network could be local or global connected by a wide array of wireless, electronic and optical technologies. The information carried by Internet is quite humongous. It comprises application of World Wide Web, Inter-link hyper text documents, mail and much more. Uses of Internet started way back in 1980s, however, it was limited to academics. It was not until a decade later when the actual commercialization started. After the mid 90 its uses increased by leaps and bounds.
The traditional modes of communication are getting re-defined with the extensive uses of Internet. Internet telephony has already caught the imagination of users. Internet television has also penetrated our daily life. News, books and magazines – all of them are creating a footstep on the internet to stay competitive. Many of the above are getting molded in the form of blogging sites, web feed and news feed. Personal interaction has taken a completely different meaning with the advent of internet. There are multiple social networking sites along with innovative ones like Whatsapp and Wechat. E-commerce shifted the entire paradigm of the shopping industry. Young demography no longer prefers shopping malls for purchasing clothes and other items. In a few clicks, they get better product at a better price. Insurance and other businesses have also undergone rapid change with the advent of Internet. Different Insurance policies can be compared online for suitability and the right decision can be taken without worrying about the agent fees and many such hassles.
One of the positives is that the Internet does not centrally govern the technical implementation for use and access. The constituent network has the freedom to formulate its own policies and direction. The main organization ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Name and Numbers) directs only the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System.
Manufacturing: The production of merchandise for use or sale using labor and machines, chemical and biological processing and tools is known as manufacturing. The term may also refer to range of human activity from handicraft to high-tech. However, it is most commonly applied to industrial production in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Finished goods may be used for manufacturing other more complex products such as household appliances, aircraft and automobiles. It may also be sold to wholesalers who in turn sell it to retailer. The consumers are the final string of the supply chain.
Manufacturing takes place under all type of economic systems. In a free market economy, manufacturing is aimed at mass production of different product. The consumers are the ultimate beneficiary. The profit goes to manufacturers. In a collective economy, manufacturing is frequently directed by state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economy, government has only certain degree of control and regulation.
Modern manufacturing includes all the intermediate process required for production and integration of products components. The term fabrication is used by some industries such as semiconductor and steel. The manufacturing sector is closely involved in engineering and industrial design. Major manufacturers in North America are General Motor Corporation, General Electric, Procter and Gamble etc.
Media and Broadcasting: The broadcasting industry consists of radio and television stations. It also includes network which creates content or acquire the right to broadcast taped television and radio programs. The signals of network are transmitted from broadcasting studios via satellite signals to local stations or cable distributors. Broadcasting signal travels over cable television line, satellite distribution systems or the airwaves. Anyone in the signal area with a radio or television can receive the programming. Most Americans receive their television broadcasts through cable and other pay television providers. Cable and other pay television distributors are classified in the telecommunications industry.
Music: The music industry includes companies that make money by creating and seeking music. The individuals and organizations operating within the industry are musicians composing and performing the music, music publishers, producers, recording studios, engineers, record labels, retail and online music stores, performance rights organizations. Booking agents, promoters, music venues, road crew who are part of the live performance also forms a part of the industry. Among other in the industry are talent managers, artists and repertoire managers, business managers, entertainment lawyers, satellite, internet, broadcast radio, journalists, educators, musical instrument manufacturers as well as many others.
Present music industry emerged around the middle of the 20th century. The records started supplementing sheet music as the largest player in the music business. In the commercial world, recording industry started to get associated with music industry. In present times, majority of the music market is controlled by three major corporate label players – the French owned Universal music group, the Japanese owned Sony music entertainment and the US owned Warner music group. Labels outside the three major labels are referred as independent labels.
The music industry has witnessed drastic changes since the advent of widespread digital distribution of music. A conspicuous indicator of this is total music sales: since 2000, sales of recorded music have dropped off substantially while live music has increased in importance. The largest music retailer in the world is now digital – Apple Inc.’s iTunes Store. The two largest companies in the industry are Universal Music Group (recording) and Sony/ATV Music Publishing (publisher).
Movies and Films: The film industry or the motion picture includes the technical and commercial part of film making – cinematography, film production, Screen writing pre-production, post-production, film festival and distribution. The industry also comprises actors, actresses, directors, producers and crew members. Though the expense involved in the production of film is huge, its benefits are many. It directly employs a lot of people through distribution and promotion business. Promotions are a new phenomenon in the industry. Management professionals are being hired to create a brand around stars and films. India has the distinction of producing highest no. of films annually. However, the quality leaves a lot be desired. United States on the other hand have maximum no. of screens and highest gross.
Petroleum: The petroleum industry include the processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline (petrol). Petroleum (oil) is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. The industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream. Midstream operations are usually included in the downstream category.
Petroleum is vital to many industries. It is extremely important for maintenance of industrial civilization in its current configuration and thus a critical concern for many countries. Oil accounts for a large percentage of the world’s energy consumption, ranging from a low of 32% for Europe and Asia, to a high of 53% for the Middle -East.
Other geographic regions’ consumption patterns are as follows: South and Central America (44%), Africa (41%), and North America (40%). The world consumes 30 billion barrels (4.8 km³) of oil per year, with developed nations being the largest consumers. The United States consumed 25% of the oil produced in 2007. The production, distribution, refining and retailing of petroleum taken as a whole represents the world’s largest industry in terms of dollar value. United States government provide a heavy public subsidy to petroleum companies, with major tax breaks at virtually every stage of oil exploration and extraction, including the costs of oil field leases and drilling equipment.
Pharmaceutical Industry: The key responsibilities of the pharmaceutical industry are production, development and marketing of drugs and pharmaceuticals for use as medication. The companies generally deal in generic drugs and brand medication. They are subjected to a variety of laws and regulations which govern the testing, patenting, efficacy, safety and marketing of drugs. In 2011, the global spending on drugs was a whooping 954 billion dollar, even as growth slowed somewhat in Europe and North America. The United States is the largest market constituting more than 33 percent of global pharmaceutical market with 340 billion dollars in annual sales followed by EU and Japan.
Publishing: It is the process of production and dissemination of music, literature or information. It is also the activity of making information available to the general public. In many cases, authors mat be their own publishers. It means that besides the development process authors are also engaged in actual delivery and display of content. The word publisher can be referred to an individual leading a publishing company or owning a magazine issue. The scope of publishing has expanded immensely with the advent of Internet. The industry makes use of electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals as well as micro-publishing, blogs, websites, video game publishers and alike. The stages of publications are – Acquisition, copy editing, production, printing, marketing and distribution.
Shipping: Originally the term shipping refers to the act of physical transfer of goods via sea. However, in modern parlance it also covers transportation by rail, road or air. The process of transporting merchandise goods and other items or commodities is called freight transport. Logistics a term very similar refers to the same act of transportation. It is widely used in military.
Software: The software industry includes business for development, maintenance and publication of software. There is different business models in place like licence or maintenance based or cloud based. As per the report of industry analyst Gartner, the size of the worldwide software industry was approximately 40 billion dollar in 2013. The largest four software vendors have been Microsoft, Oracle, IBM and SAP respectively. Business model of software companies is widely discussed. Network effect in software ecosystem, network of companies and their customers are an important element in the strategy of software companies.
Steel: The steel industry has a rich and prosperous history. It is considered the backbone of modern economy. It experienced remarkable technological dynamism and entrepreneurship and enjoyed significant economic, political, and strategic importance. Even globalization and emergence of latest technology has not dented its clout. Western nations no longer dominate the industry.
Large scale construction is a tribute to human perseverance, ambition and dedication. A project manager normally manages the job, while the construction manager, designer, engineer and project architect supervises it. Effective planning is essential for successful execution of project. The things to be kept in mind are: zoning requirement, environmental impact, successful scheduling, construction site safety, budgeting, availability and transportation of building materials, public inconvenience and logistics.
Telecommunication: The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) products. At present, it represents nearly 400 companies. TIA’s Standards and Technology Department operates twelve engineering committees, which develop guidelines for private radio equipment, cellular towers, data terminals, satellites, telephone terminal equipment, accessibility, VoIP devices, structured cabling, data centers, mobile device communications, multimedia multicast, and smart utility networks. Overall, more than 500 active participants, communications equipment manufacturers, service providers, government agencies, academic institutions, and end-users are engaged in TIA’s standards setting process.
TIA is also engaged in the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) to ensure that standards are incorporated globally.
Timber: It is extremely flexible, structurally hard, aesthetic and at the center of construction environment. It is an effective and efficient way to achieve a low carbon, high performance energy efficient building. Timber is the lowest embodied carbon of any commercial building material. The supply chain of timber is quite complex. In the United Kingdom, Timber and Forest Industry has been placed 18th in the list of over 120 major industries. Office of National Statistics has valued the industry around 8.5 billion pound. The operations involved in the production and distribution to the market place is cumbersome. Its uses are also varied. Timber supply chain operation includes harvesting of timber, wood processing, downstream to sawmill, manufacturer and finally distributor. All the members in the supply chain are extremely important.
Products and systems of the timber industry are one of the most innovative and flexible ones. They cover a wide array including timber frame, structural insulated panels, engineered woods, cross laminated timber, decking, flooring and cladding. Each species and every wood product have its distinct features. The commonly understood timbers are larch, oak, spruce and tropical timber like meranti and balau. If one is looking for strength, durability and beauty, a combination of first three would be ideal.
Water: The water industry provides drinking water and waste water services (including sewage treatment) to residential, commercial and industrial sectors of the economy. The water includes suppliers and manufacturers of bottled water. Rise in health awareness, increase in tourism and easy availability of water has resulted in rise of packaged water. In 2013, the total market has been estimated at 60 billion rupee. The top 5 players accounted for 67% of the market share. The industry witnessed a boom in the late 90’s when Bisleri was launched. The growth was also helped by new age advertising highlighting packaged water as pure and healthy. Due to poor infrastructure, companies have not been able to penetrate the rural and semi-urban market. Privatization of water industries is becoming a contentious issue as water security threatens the global community.
Wholesale: Wholesaling, distribution or jobbing is nothing but sale in bulk quantity. The sold item could be any product or service. The products or services could be sold to an individual, retailer, a business group or a single other wholesaler. Generally speaking the sale could be to anyone except an end user.
As per the United Nation Statistics Division wholesale is just resale of used goods to other smaller or big wholesalers. The wholesalers just acts as an agent or intermediary. The primary job of wholesaler is to collect large quantity and then break the bulk into several smaller pieces as per the requirements and demand of the market and other smaller wholesaler. Wholesaler operated from an independent individual location. However, as per standard practice, wholesalers are supposed to assemble at a specific location for easy and smooth business transaction.
Traditionally, they are closer to the market from where demand is coming and quite far from the source of the product. The advent of internet changed the landscape of business. Now a day wholesalers could be seen assembling in China, Taiwan and other South-east countries because of the cheaper product. In banking, wholesale banking refers to package of services provided to large customers. The services are tailor made for specific customers.
And Many More Industries are represented in our library.